Aprenda Inglês Gratis

Review

Review   to allow plenty of time for preparation to ask the all-important question-words, why? who? where? when? how? and what? to structure your presentation into introduction, body, conclusion and questions to write notes based on keywords to rehearse your presentation several times and modify it as necessary to select the right equipment for the job to use equipment effectively to make use of clear, powerful visual aids that do not overload your audience to use clear, simple language, avoiding jargon to use active verbs and concrete facts to explain the structure of your presentation at the beginning so that your listeners know what to expect to link each section of your presentation to signpost your presentation from beginning to end so that your listeners know where they are to say what you are going to say, say it, and say what you have just said to overcome your nerves to establish audience rapport to be aware of your body language to understand cultural differences to control the quality of your voice to maintain interest by varying the speed, volume and pitch of your voice to deal with listeners’ questions politely to respond to your audience...

The Presentation

The Presentation  …say it, Most presentations are divided into 3 main parts (+ questions): 1 INTRODUCTION (Questions) 2 BODY 3 CONCLUSION  Questions   As a general rule in communication, repetition is valuable. In presentations, there is a golden rule about repetition: 1.Say what you are going to say, 2.say it, 3.then say what you have just said. In other words, use the three parts of your presentation to reinforce your message. In the introduction, you tell your audience what your message is going to be. In the body, you tell your audience your real message. In the conclusion, you summarize what your message was. We will now consider each of these parts in more detail. Introduction The introduction is a very important – perhaps the most important – part of your presentation. This is the first impression that your audience have of you. You should concentrate on getting your introduction right. You should use the introduction to: 1.welcome your audience 2.introduce your subject 3.outline the structure of your presentation 4.give instructions about questions The following table shows examples of language for each of these functions. You may need to modify the language as appropriate. Function Possible language 1 Welcoming your audience •Good morning, ladies and gentlemen •Good morning, gentlemen •Good afternoon, ladies and gentleman •Good afternoon, everybody   2 Introducing your subject •I am going to talk today about… •The purpose of my presentation is to introduce our new range of…   3 Outlining your structure •To start with I’ll describe the progress made this year. Then I’ll mention some of the problems we’ve encountered and how we overcame them. After that I’ll consider the possibilities for further growth next year. Finally, I’ll summarize my presentation (before concluding with some recommendations).   4 Giving instructions about questions •Do feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions. •I’ll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation. •I plan to keep some time for questions after the presentation.   Body The body is the ‘real’ presentation. If the introduction was well prepared and delivered, you will now be ‘in control’. You will be relaxed and confident. The body should be well structured, divided...

Language

Language  Say what you are going to say, Simplicity and Clarity If you want your audience to understand your message, your language must be simple and clear. Use short words and short sentences. Do not use jargon, unless you are certain that your audience understands it. In general, talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas. Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. Active verbs are much easier to understand. They are much more powerful. Consider these two sentences, which say the same thing: 1.Toyota sold two million cars last year. 2.Two million cars were sold by Toyota last year. Which is easier to understand? Which is more immediate? Which is more powerful? #1 is active and #2 is passive. Signposting When you drive on the roads, you know where you are on those roads. Each road has a name or number. Each town has a name. And each house has a number. If you are at house #100, you can go back to #50 or forward to N#150. You can look at the signposts for directions. And you can look at your atlas for the structure of the roads in detail. In other words, it is easy to navigate the roads. You cannot get lost. But when you give a presentation, how can your audience know where they are? How can they know the structure of your presentation? How can they know what is coming next? They know because you tell them. Because you put up signposts for them, at the beginning and all along the route. This technique is called ‘signposting’ (or ‘signalling’). During your introduction, you should tell your audience what the structure of your presentation will be. You might say something like this: "I’ll start by describing the current position in Europe. Then I’ll move on to some of the achievements we’ve made in Asia. After that I’ll consider the opportunities we see for further expansion in Africa. Lastly, I’ll quickly recap before concluding with some recommendations." A member of the audience can now visualize your presentation like this: Introduction •Welcome •Explanation of structure (now)   Body •Europe •Asia •Africa    Conclusion •Summing up •Recommendations   He will keep this...

Delivery

Delivery ‘Delivery’ refers to the way in which you actually deliver or perform or give your presentation. Delivery is a vital aspect of all presentations. Delivery is at least as important as content, especially in a multi-cultural context. Nerves Most speakers are a little nervous at the beginning of a presentation. So it is normal if you are nervous. The answer is to pay special attention to the beginning of your presentation. First impressions count. This is the time when you establish a rapport with your audience. During this time, try to speak slowly and calmly. You should perhaps learn your introduction by heart. After a few moments, you will relax and gain confidence. Audience Rapport You need to build a warm and friendly relationship with your audience. Enthusiasm is contagious. If you are enthusiastic your audience will be enthusiastic too. And be careful to establish eye contact with each member of your audience. Each person should feel that you are speaking directly to him or her. This means that you must look at each person in turn – in as natural a way as possible. This will also give you the opportunity to detect signs of boredom, disinterest or even disagreement, allowing you to modify your presentation as appropriate.  Your objective is to communicate! Body Language What you do not say is at least as important as what you do say. Your body is speaking to your audience even before you open your mouth. Your clothes, your walk, your glasses, your haircut, your expression – it is from these that your audience forms its first impression as you enter the room. Generally speaking, it is better to stand rather than sit when making a presentation. Be aware of and avoid any repetitive and irritating gestures. Be aware, too, that the movement of your body is one of your methods of control. When you move to or from the whiteboard, for example, you can move fast or slowly, raising or reducing the dynamism within the audience. You can stand very still while talking or you can stroll from side to side. What effect do you think these two different approaches would have on an...

Equipament

Equipment Easily your most important piece of equipment is…YOU! Make sure you’re in full working order, and check your personal presentation carefully – if you don’t, your audience will!   The overhead projector (OHP) displays overhead transparencies (OHTs or OHPTs). It has several advantages over the 35mm slide projector: •it can be used in daylight •the user can face the audience •the user can write or draw directly on the transparency while in use     The whiteboard (more rarely blackboard or greenboard) is a useful device for spontaneous writing – as in brainstorming, for example. For prepared material, the OHP might be more suitable.      The duster is used for cleaning the whiteboard. It is essential that the duster be clean to start with. You may consider carrying your own duster just in case.    Markers are used for writing on the whiteboard (delible – you can remove the ink) or flipchart (indelible – you cannot remove the ink). They are usually available in blue, red, black and green. Again, it’s a good idea to carry a spare set of markers in case you are given some used ones which do not write well.  "A good workman never blames his tools."     The flipchart consists of several leaves of paper that you ‘flip’ or turn over. Some people prefer the flipchart to the whiteboard, but its use is limited to smaller presentations.     The Slide projector – which must be used in a darkened room – adds a certain drama. Some slide projectors can be synchronised with audio for audio-visual (AV) presentations. These projectors are typically used for larger presentations. The majority take 35mm slides or transparencies (as seen here), but projectors for 6x6cm slides are also available.     Transparencies are projected by an overhead projector or a slide projector onto a screen – in this case a folding screen which can be packed up and transported.    The notebook computer is increasingly being used to display graphics during presentations. It is often used in conjunction with an overhead projector, which actually projects the image from the computer screen onto the wall screen.    Handouts are any documents or samples that you...

Preparation

Preparation   With good preparation and planning you will be totally confident and less nervous. And your audience will feel your confidence. Your audience, too, will be confident. They will be confident in you. And this will give you control. Control of your audience and of your presentation. With control, you will be ‘in charge’ and your audience will listen positively to your message. Objective Before you start to prepare a presentation, you should ask yourself: "Why am I making this presentation?" Do you need to inform, to persuade, to train or to sell? Your objective should be clear in your mind. If it is not clear in your mind, it cannot possibly be clear to your audience. Audience "Who am I making this presentation to?" Sometimes this will be obvious, but not always. You should try to inform yourself. How many people? Who are they? Business people? Professional people? Political people? Experts or non-experts? Will it be a small, intimate group of 4 colleagues or a large gathering of 400 competitors? How much do they know already and what will they expect from you? Venue "Where am I making this presentation?" In a small hotel meeting-room or a large conference hall? What facilities and equipment are available? What are the seating arrangements? Time and length "When am I making this presentation and how long will it be?" Will it be 5 minutes or 1 hour? Just before lunch, when your audience will be hungry, or just after lunch, when your audience will be sleepy? Method How should I make this presentation?" What approach should you use? Formal or informal? Lots of visual aids or only a few? Will you include some anecdotes and humour for variety? Content "What should I say?" Now you must decide exactly what you want to say. First, you should brainstorm your ideas. You will no doubt discover many ideas that you want to include in your presentation. But you must be selective. You should include only information that is relevant to your audience and your objective. You should exclude all other ideas. You also need to create a title for your presentation (if you have not already been...